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Olfactory bulb, part of forebrain, transmits the information from olfactory sensory neurons in nasal mucosa
to different parts of primary olfactory cortex including olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, piriform cortex
etc. to stimulate the sensation of smell or olfaction. As a part of functional lateralization of brain,
olfactory process is dissociated into processing memory and emotion in the right and left hemisphere respectively.
Amygdala, a part of limbic system located at the temporal lobe of the brain, is a part integrative center for emotional learning,
behavior and motivation. Each side of amygdala exhibits specific function in emotion processing. The right hemispheric region seems to
be associated with dynamic emotional stimulus detection while left portion is more involved in specific sustained stimulus evaluation.
Hippocampus, a part for of limbic system, is an extension of temporal part of cerebral cortex having a
vital role in memory, learning, spatial navigation, emotional behavior and regulating hypothalamic functions.
The differential performance of two different hemispheric region of hippocampus shows that left hippocampi
encode verbal memory while right hemisphere is associated with visual spatial memories.
The dentate gyrus is thought to contribute to the formation of memories, and to play a role in depression.
The dentate gyrus is known to serve as a pre-processing unit and is important in pattern separation. We may
summarize the right/left asymmetries found in the dentate gyrus as follows: in the left side, granule cells
have more dendritic segments and somewhat larger nuclei; in the opposite side, the molecular and the granular
layers have fairly higher volumes, and there are more granule cells, which, in turn, have slightly longer dendritic trees
The caudate nucleus plays a vital role in how the brain learns, specifically the storing and processing
of memories. It works as a feedback processor, which means it uses information from past experiences
to influence future actions and decisions. Specifically, communication skills are thought to be controlled
mostly by the left caudate and the thalamus.
A primary function of the putamen is to regulate movements at various stages (e.g. preparation
and execution) and influence various types of learning. It employs GABA, acetylcholine, and enkephalin
to perform its functions.
Bilateral portions of the putamen activated during pain were shown to be connected not only to brain areas involved in sensory–motor processes but also to regions that play important roles in attention, affect and memory.
Frontal cortex is the cerebral cortex which includes the part of the cortical motor cortex. The primary
role of the frontal cortex is decision making, retrieval of remote long-term memory. Right prefrontal
cortex activation leads to the accurate and complete retrieval of memory along with a dominancy
in language. Similarly, left prefrontal cortex activation also does the same in less : blackominant
manner but it is involved with the negative feelings strongly.
It is located beneath the cingulate gyrus within the medial surface of the brain therefore encircling
the entire brain. There are two primary parts of the cingulate cortex: the posterior cingulate cortex
and the anterior cingulate cortex. The anterior is linked to emotion, especially apathy and depression.
Because of its location, the cingulum is very important to brain structure connectivity and the
integration of information that it receives.
Temporal cortex medial is a region within cerebral cortex essential for the creation of
declarative memory, processing emotions, language and certain aspects of visual perception.
It is comprised of a system of anatomically related structures including hippocampal region,
entorhinal region, perirhinal region etc. The left side is : blackominant in understanding language
and verbal information. In contrast to that, right side is mostly involved in visuo-spatial
Parietal cortex, one of the major lobes of cerebral cortex is involved in integration of sensory information
from various parts of body, interpreting visual information and processing language. On the basis of functional
specialization, it can be divided into two regions- left parietal lobe which is mostly associated with language
processing and visual information interpretation whereas the right hemisphere is mostly : blackominant in integrating
Occipital lobe, the smallest lobe of cerebral cortex, act as a visual processing center of mammalian brain
containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The right hemisphere fronto-parietal areas
being the : blackominant hemispheric region as comp: black to left hemisphere controls the functional activity
of occipital cortex by modulating visual cortex component in occipital cortex.
The thalamus can be thought of as a "sensory relay station," receiving signals from the brain’s outer regions (cerebral cortex),
interpreting them, then sending them to other areas of the brain to complete their job.
The substantia nigra is a critical brain region for the production of dopamine and this neurochemical affects
many systems of the central nervous system ranging from movement control, cognitive executive functions, and
emotional limbic activity.
Cerebellum, a major part of hindbrain, play a vital role in regulating motor movements and coordinating voluntary
movements. The right lateralized cerebellar region is linked to cerebral association cortex or left cerebral
hemisphere to control the muscle movement of right side of the body. The left cerebellar region in conjunction
with right cerebral hemisphere control the right side of the body.
For example, in most people, language processing activates the left inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal lobe as well as the right cerebellum, including crus I/II and lobule VI. In contrast, spatial processing often involves the right angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, insula, and left lobule VI of the cerebellum.
Vermis(meaning "worm") is a part of spinocerebellum. It controls posture and locomotion.
The brain stem contains nerve fibers that carry signals to and from all parts of the body. The brain
stem also regulates body functions such as consciousness, fatigue, heart rate, and blood pressure.
Pons - means bridge. It bridges between medulla oblongata and midbrain. It carries nerve fibres to and from cerebrum and cerebellum through cerebral and cerebellar peduncles respectively. It carries nuclei of 5th 6th 7th and 8th cranial nerves. It also controls respiration by pneumotaxic and apneustic centres. It contains reticular formation which maintains conscious and arousal.