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Regional Information

Olfactory Bulb:

Olfactory bulb, part of forebrain, transmits the information from olfactory sensory neurons in nasal mucosa to different parts of primary olfactory cortex including olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, piriform cortex etc. to stimulate the sensation of smell or olfaction. As a part of functional lateralization of brain, olfactory process is dissociated into processing memory and emotion in the right and left hemisphere respectively.

Sub-cortical Regions

Amygdala, a part of limbic system located at the temporal lobe of the brain, is a part integrative center for emotional learning, behavior and motivation. Each side of amygdala exhibits specific function in emotion processing. The right hemispheric region seems to be associated with dynamic emotional stimulus detection while left portion is more involved in specific sustained stimulus evaluation.


Hippocampus, a part for of limbic system, is an extension of temporal part of cerebral cortex having a vital role in memory, learning, spatial navigation, emotional behavior and regulating hypothalamic functions. The differential performance of two different hemispheric region of hippocampus shows that left hippocampi encode verbal memory while right hemisphere is associated with visual spatial memories.

Dentate Gyrus:

The dentate gyrus is thought to contribute to the formation of memories, and to play a role in depression. The dentate gyrus is known to serve as a pre-processing unit and is important in pattern separation. We may summarize the right/left asymmetries found in the dentate gyrus as follows: in the left side, granule cells have more dendritic segments and somewhat larger nuclei; in the opposite side, the molecular and the granular layers have fairly higher volumes, and there are more granule cells, which, in turn, have slightly longer dendritic trees

Basal Ganglia
Caudate Nucleus:

The caudate nucleus plays a vital role in how the brain learns, specifically the storing and processing of memories. It works as a feedback processor, which means it uses information from past experiences to influence future actions and decisions. Specifically, communication skills are thought to be controlled mostly by the left caudate and the thalamus.


A primary function of the putamen is to regulate movements at various stages (e.g. preparation and execution) and influence various types of learning. It employs GABA, acetylcholine, and enkephalin to perform its functions.
Bilateral portions of the putamen activated during pain were shown to be connected not only to brain areas involved in sensory–motor processes but also to regions that play important roles in attention, affect and memory.

Cerebral Cortex
Frontal Cortex:

Frontal cortex is the cerebral cortex which includes the part of the cortical motor cortex. The primary role of the frontal cortex is decision making, retrieval of remote long-term memory. Right prefrontal cortex activation leads to the accurate and complete retrieval of memory along with a dominancy in language. Similarly, left prefrontal cortex activation also does the same in less : blackominant manner but it is involved with the negative feelings strongly.


It is located beneath the cingulate gyrus within the medial surface of the brain therefore encircling the entire brain. There are two primary parts of the cingulate cortex: the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. The anterior is linked to emotion, especially apathy and depression. Because of its location, the cingulum is very important to brain structure connectivity and the integration of information that it receives.

Temporal Cortex:

Temporal cortex medial is a region within cerebral cortex essential for the creation of declarative memory, processing emotions, language and certain aspects of visual perception. It is comprised of a system of anatomically related structures including hippocampal region, entorhinal region, perirhinal region etc. The left side is : blackominant in understanding language and verbal information. In contrast to that, right side is mostly involved in visuo-spatial information learning.

Parietal Cortex:

Parietal cortex, one of the major lobes of cerebral cortex is involved in integration of sensory information from various parts of body, interpreting visual information and processing language. On the basis of functional specialization, it can be divided into two regions- left parietal lobe which is mostly associated with language processing and visual information interpretation whereas the right hemisphere is mostly : blackominant in integrating sensory information.

Occipital Cortex:

Occipital lobe, the smallest lobe of cerebral cortex, act as a visual processing center of mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The right hemisphere fronto-parietal areas being the : blackominant hemispheric region as comp: black to left hemisphere controls the functional activity of occipital cortex by modulating visual cortex component in occipital cortex.


The thalamus can be thought of as a "sensory relay station," receiving signals from the brain’s outer regions (cerebral cortex), interpreting them, then sending them to other areas of the brain to complete their job.

Substantia Nigra:

The substantia nigra is a critical brain region for the production of dopamine and this neurochemical affects many systems of the central nervous system ranging from movement control, cognitive executive functions, and emotional limbic activity.


Cerebellum, a major part of hindbrain, play a vital role in regulating motor movements and coordinating voluntary movements. The right lateralized cerebellar region is linked to cerebral association cortex or left cerebral hemisphere to control the muscle movement of right side of the body. The left cerebellar region in conjunction with right cerebral hemisphere control the right side of the body.
For example, in most people, language processing activates the left inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal lobe as well as the right cerebellum, including crus I/II and lobule VI. In contrast, spatial processing often involves the right angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, insula, and left lobule VI of the cerebellum.

Cerebellar Vermis:

Vermis(meaning "worm") is a part of spinocerebellum. It controls posture and locomotion.

Brain Stem

The brain stem contains nerve fibers that carry signals to and from all parts of the body. The brain stem also regulates body functions such as consciousness, fatigue, heart rate, and blood pressure.


Pons - means bridge. It bridges between medulla oblongata and midbrain. It carries nerve fibres to and from cerebrum and cerebellum through cerebral and cerebellar peduncles respectively. It carries nuclei of 5th 6th 7th and 8th cranial nerves. It also controls respiration by pneumotaxic and apneustic centres. It contains reticular formation which maintains conscious and arousal.

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